Illinois Issues is published by Sangamon State University, the Public Affairs University of the State of Illinois, and cosponsored by the University of Illinois
ILLINOIS ISSUES is published by Sangamon State University. The magazine's board is appointed by the presidents of Sangamon State University and the University of Illinois. In addition to subscription income, the magazine is supported by grants from the Illinois Humanities Council, the Joyce Foundation, the U.S. Department of Energy; the Ancel Charitable Trust; support from the University of Illinois and Sangamon State University; and donations. The contents of the magazine do not necessarily reflect the views of the grantors, either university or donors.
Publisher: J. Michael Lennon. Editor: Caroline Gherardini. Circulation and advertising manager: Elizabeth A. Curl. Editor emeritus: William L. Day. Associate editors: Margaret S. Knoepfle, Richard J. Shereikis, Larry Smith. Assistant editors: Patricia Burtle-McCredie, John G. Martin. Legislative correspondents: Diane Ross. Contributing editors: Tom Littlewood, Bill Miller, Robert Kieckhefer, Milton Rakove, Ed McManus, Anna J. Merritt, Robert Mackay, James Krohe Jr., Barbara J. Hipsman, Bob Springer. Capitol Commentary Editor: Melinda F. Kwedar. Graduate Assistant: Marian L. Heid. Business staff: Bonnie S. Roberts. Student assistants: Harry T. Bostick, Wendy A. Hall, Jan R. Martz, Mark Thornton.
Chairman: Samuel K. Gove, director, Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois, Urbana
Vice Chairman: James R. Kackley, partner, Arthur Andersen & Co., Chicago.
Members: Louis Ancel, attorney, Chicago. David E. Connor, Commercial National Bank of Peoria. William L. Day, editor emeritus, Springfield. Harold L. Deakins, public affairs manager, Illinois Power Company, Decatur. Robert P. Ewing, chairman of the board and president, Bankers Life & Casualty Co., Chicago. James M. Furman, executive vice president, MacArthur Foundation, Chicago. Doris B. Holleb, director, Metropolitan Institute, University of Chicago. Michael J. Howlett, partner, Howlett & Perkins Associates, Chicago. Michael H. Hudson, vice president, public affairs, Illinois Tool Works Inc., Chicago. David Kenney, director, Illinois Department of Conservation, Springfield. Louis H. Masotti, professor of political science and urban affairs, Northwestern University, Evanston. Odas Nicholson, judge, Cook County Circuit Court. James D. Nowlan, director, Public Administration Program, University of Illinois, Urbana. James T. Otis, lawyer, Chicago. Theodore Peterson, professor of journalism, University of Illinois, Urbana. Betsy Plank, assistant vice president, Illinois Bell Telephone Co., Chicago. Carl Shier, international representative, Region 4, United Auto Workers. Honorable William G. Stratton, vice president, Canteen Corporation, Chicago. Thomas F. Roeser, vice president-government relations, The Quaker Oats Company, Chicago. James M. Wall, editor, Christian Century, Chicago. Samuel W. Witwer, lawyer, Chicago. James C. Worthy, professor of management, Northwestern University. J. Michael Lennon, ex officio member.
The Cutback Amendment
EDITORS: J. Michael Lennon and Caroline A. Gherardini
Copyright 1982. All rights reserved.
And in Illinois, and what Illinois thinks today the Union will think tomorrow, the discussion is passing from theory to practical approval.
Times (London), January 13, 1870.
In the world we are racing into . . . [we] may also want to derig our voting laws to eliminate anti-minority biases. . . . One quite conventional method would be to adopt some variant of cumulative voting. . . "
Alvin Toffler, The Third Wave (New York: Bantam Books, Inc. 1980).
4 CHAPTER I
History of cumulative voting, 1870-1970: Three is better than one
Adopted in 1870 in an effort to assure minority representation, cumulative voting underwent only two major challenges in the next 100 years. During these years minority representation was increased, but voters' choice was often limited.
9 CHAPTER II
The 1970 Constitutional Convention: The beginning of the end
During the 1970 Constitutional Convention, partisan conflict complicated the issue of cumulative voting. Although cumulative voting was retained by the voters in 1970, the newly adopted constitutional initiative permitted its eventual elimination.
14 CHAPTER III
The pay raise and the petitions: Catalyst for the cutback
Enactment of a controversial legislative pay raise in 1978 sparked such unfavorable public reaction that a proposal to eliminate cumulative voting was initiated by citizens' groups and placed on the November 4, 1980, ballot.
23 CHAPTER IV
The passage of the cutback amendment: A unique experiment ended
Arguing that passage of the cutback would increase electoral competition and legislative accountability, and reduce costs, supporters were victorious at the polls.
29 CHAPTER V
The effects of the cutback: Expectations and realities
The consequences of the cutback are not likely to be either as great as advocates hoped or as opponents feared.
36 CUTBACK POSTSCRIPT
the indirect initiative