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A Letter from the Editor        

Illinois State Historical Society

It is with a deep sense of pride and pleasure that we present to you the first issue of Illinois Heritage. Our newest publication became a reality much more quickly than members of our Board and staff had anticipated. Its production achieves a long-held goal of members of the Society's Board and staff, while serving the genuine need to make the State's history and culture more accessible to our members and to the general public.

Illinois Heritage was developed because we believe that in a state this size, there are countless numbers who are fascinated by aspects of our common heritage but who for one reason or another are either unable to take their history in large doses or unwilling to wade through footnotes in order to learn new facts. Thus far, our limited conversations in both the popular and scholarly communities have confirmed that a publication of this sort will find a ready audience here in Illinois.

The success of a publication of this sort depends upon the input and contributions of our members and the public, and I strongly urge our readers to take part in this new venture. It is our hope that Illinois Heritage will fill a need among the rank and file just as Illinois Historical Journal fills an important need in the academic community. Our first issue draws upon the resources that we had available in order to present a strong first effort; however, we believe that the numerous illustrations and friendly graphics will set an informal tone. We have selected the articles in the first issue to reflect the State's diversity, to showcase important available resources, and to demonstrate that our heritage is linked to our nation's past.

In any project of this magnitude, acknowledgments must be made: to our Board for agreeing to take this important step that will aid the Society's growth; to editors of similar popular history magazines in Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Missouri, New York, and Ohio who freely offered guidance and insights; to our advertisers who have provided the financial resources for production; to our feature authors; to the staffs of repositories that have helped to illustrate the articles; and to Image Publications for its role in handling all aspects of production. THANK YOU. Together, they have contributed to the success of the first issue.

We would welcome your comments, letters, suggestions, and criticisms so that together we can produce the type of magazine that our members and the public wish to see. Happy reading.

Jon Austin, Signature
Illinois Heritage

A Publication of The Illinois State Historical Society

Fall 1997
Volume 1 Number 1

6 The Other Half: Women and the Illinois Indian Tribe
by Raymond E. Hauser

12 Christiana and John Tillson, Illinois Pioneers
by Kay J. Carr

18 A Review of The Emerging Midwest: Upland Southerners and the Political Culture of the Old Northwest, 1787-1861
by James E. Davis

19 A Review of Concerning Coal: An Anthology
by Michael J. McNerney

24 Essay on Lincoln's Lyceum Speech
by Paul Simon

26 Address Before the Young Men's Lyceum of Springfield, Illinois
by Abraham Lincoln

32 Hutchins of Chicago: The University President as Publicist
by Roland L. Guyotte


Illinois Heritage is published for The Illinois State Historical Society by Image Publications of New Berlin, Wisconsin. The Illinois State Historical Society is a non-profit organization committed to preserving and promoting the heritage and culture of Illinois.

Copyright 1997 Illinois State Historical Society. All rights reserved. For private use only.


Illinois Heritage Mission Statement
Illinois Heritage is an illustrated magazine published quarterly by the Illinois State Historical Society and distributed to the Society's 2,400 members. Conceived as a vehicle to bring to the public good narrative and analytical history about Illinois in its local and broader contexts of region and nation, the magazine explores the lives and work of architects, artists, entrepreneurs, homemakers, laborers, naturalists, performers, politicians, reformers, soldiers, and writers. It traces the impact of Illinois on the nation and the world through well-known figures such as Jane Addams, Jack Benny, Black Hawk, Gwendolyn Brooks, William Jennings Bryan, Al Capone, Richard J. Daley, John Deere, Everett Dirksen, Stephen Douglas, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, Robert Ingersoll, John A. Logan, Elijah Lovejoy, Cyrus McCormick, Fibber McGee & Molly, George Pullman, Carl Sandburg, Louis Sullivan, and Frank Lloyd Wright. Illinois Heritage examines the influence on the state of non-Illinoisans such as George Rogers Clark, Eugene V. Debs, Enrico Fermi, Mary Garden, Louis Jolliet, Charles Lindbergh, A. Philip Randolph, Joseph Smith, and Harold Washington. Just as important, it features ordinary Illinois men and women, bringing light to obscure lives and work. In this vein, the editorial staff seeks nonfiction articles that are solidly researched, attractively written, and amenable to illustration. Scholars, journalists, and freelance writers are encouraged to contribute to the magazine.


AN INTRODUCTION TO Illinois Heritage

覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧 by Robert McColley, President
覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧覧Illinois State Historical Society

I studied United States History in college and graduate school. However, most of the things that fascinate me about the history of our great state and its great metropolis either were never mentioned in the classes I attended and pages I read, or they passed so quickly as to leave no recollection.

Several examples come to mind. By far the most powerful earthquake in North America of which we have direct testimony was not in California but in Illinois, Missouri and Kentucky in 1811. New Madrid, Missouri, was the epicenter. Upheavals and collapses of the land formed many of the lakes in Southern Illinois, shifted the course of the Mississippi, and temporarily made the Ohio River run backwards. People reported feeling tremors on the East Coast. A century ago, Chicago led the world in the manufacture of pianos when it was the most popular musical instrument in the United States. In the early years of this century, one could ride all the way from Cleveland, Ohio, to St. Louis, Missouri, on interurban electric trains. Experts know these things, but most citizens of Illinois today are not experts in the history of their own state. We are launching Illinois Heritage as a step toward making people of this great state as conscious of their history as are the people of Massachusetts, Virginia, or Texas.

Members of the Illinois State Historical Society already receive Dispatch/News and Illinois Historical Journal four times a year. Now, here is Illinois Heritage not as a substitution or replacement but as an addition to the benefits of membership. While we hope that students will find it interesting and sometimes useful for schoolwork, we are writing mainly for adults who have either mostly forgotten that fine course in Illinois history taken ages ago, or never had the benefit of such a course. Therefore our purpose is not to publish the most original articles and documents we can find-although we have nothing against originality-but instead, we seek the most interesting and important. Our hope is that anyone who reads Illinois Heritage for a few years will become an expert in the state's history and culture and be keen to learn more.

Illinois Heritage costs a lot to produce, and though we represent a great and rich state, the Society is modest in its resources. We could not possibly produce our new magazine without the generous donation by our contributors of their time and expertise or the financial support of our advertisers. We hope our readers will enjoy the substantial quantity of advertisements many of which supply interesting histories of businesses and organizations that have contributed to our collective heritage.

We intend to have Letters to the Editor as a regular feature, and we trust that it will be a lively one-perhaps the section that most readers turn to first. If we receive more good letters than we have room to publish, we will post the overflow on our Web Page. We also expect the future contents of Illinois Heritage to be shaped by the interests, suggestions, and the contributions of our members.

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ILLINOIS HERITAGE


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Meanwhile, Dispatch/News will continue to serve as the Society's newsletter. The Illinois Historic Preservation Agency edits and publishes Illinois Historical Journal for the benefit of members of the Society and the Illinois Association of Museums; the Society pays postage and in recent years a fraction of the printing costs. We contribute some of our revenue to help support the educational programs of the Agency, and we cooperate with it in maintaining a statewide program of historical markers. Many of our members have contributed to the Journal as well, but it should be emphasized that the Society does not manage or control the content of the Journal.

We are especially proud to be launching Illinois Heritage in anticipation of the Society's hundredth anniversary in 1999. In our next few issues we will reflect on the history and evolution of the Society, the Illinois State Historical Library, and other agencies and institutions that have taken place in Illinois during the last hundred years or so. While others argue whether 2000 is the last year of the Twentieth Century or the First Year of the Twenty-first, we will know for certain that the Illinois State Historical Society has begun its next century in 1999.

Robert McColley, Signature


Contributors覧覧覧覧覧

Kay J. Carr is Associate Professor of History at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. She received her Ph.D. in history from the University of Chicago. With Michael P. Conzen, she was the editor of The Illinois and Michigan Canal Heritage Corridor: A Guide to its History and Sources. Her article, "Community Dynamics and Educational Decisions: Establishing Public Schools in Belleville and Galesburg," which appeared in Illinois Historical Journal, received the Harry M. Pratt Memorial Award as the best article in Illinois history in 1991. Her research interests include the history and geography of Illinois and the Midwest.

Roland L. Guyotte is Associate Professor of History and Morse Alumni Distinguished Teaching Professor of Social Sciences at the University of Minnesota, Morris. He received his Ph.D. in history from Northwestern University in 1980. With his wife, Dr. Barbara M. Posadas, he has published several articles on the history of Filipinos in the Midwest. He is currently at work on a biography of Alexander Meiklejohn, a leading American educator and civil libertarian.

Raymond Hauser is Professor of History at Waubonsee Community College in Sugar Grove and an adjunct member of the faculty at Aurora University. He received his Ph.D. from Northern Illinois University in DeKalb. He is a past president of the Illinois State Historical Society and has served on the Editorial Advisory Board of Illinois Historical Journal. He has published a number of articles and critical reviews on the heritage and culture of native peoples of the Midwestern and Western U.S.

Paul Simon is director of the Public Policy Institute at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale where he also teaches. He recently retired from the United States Senate after twelve years' service. Previously, he served in the United States House of Representatives (1975 to 1985). He was elected to the Illinois House in 1954 and the State Senate in 1962. He has also been a professional newspaper publisher and editor in Madison County. He is the author of fifteen books, which include Freedom's Champion: Elijah Lovejoy (1994) and Lincoln's Preparation for Greatness (1965). This year marks the 160th anniversary of Lovejoy's murder.


FRONT COVER: Starved Rock. This area has been inhabited from as early as 8,000 B.C. The Kaskaskia, a sub-tribe of the Illiniwek, established a prosperous village of approximately 5,000 to 7,000 inhabitants here along the opposite bank of the Illinois River. The French explorer Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette reported this geological landmark and the presence of the village in 1673. Father Marquette returned here two years later to establish the Mission of the Immaculate Conception, which was the first Christian mission in the Illinois country. Following their claim of the territory in the name of Louis XIV, the French erected Fort St. Louis on top of this 125-foot, sandstone outcropping during the winter of 1682-83. The site was selected due to its strategic location above the Illinois River. The Fort was abandoned by the French who relocated to Fort Pimitoui at the site of present-day Peoria. Fort St. Louis provided shelter for traders until it was destroyed by fire about 1720.

The site was called Le Rocher, "the Rock," by the French. According to Native American legend, this geological formation received its present name following tribal wars in the 1760s. A band of Illiniwek who had taken refuge died there of starvation following their entrapment by the Ottawa and Potawatomi. The Ottawa sought retribution for the murder of Pontiac, their chief. See related story by Raymond E. Hauser in this issue.

Further information regarding Starved Rock may be obtained by writing to: Starved Rock State Park, Box 509, Utica, IL 61373 or by calling 815-667-4726.

Photo by Joel Dexter. Copyright 1996. Reprinted by permission of the photographer.

ILLINOIS HERITAGE ¦5

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